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Khalid Swift
Khalid Swift

Transaction


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A transaction is an electronic exchange of information between two parties to carry out financial or administrative activities related to health care. For example, a health care provider will send a claim to a health plan to request payment for medical services.


In 2010, subsequent legislation introduced additional provisions that addressed the use of transactions, building upon the requirements already in place through HIPAA. Together, the provisions are referred to as Administrative Simplification, because their purpose is to simplify the business of health care.


Locking read-write. This type of transaction is the only transaction typethat supports writing data into Spanner. These transactions rely onpessimistic locking and, if necessary, two-phase commit. Locking read-writetransactions may abort, requiring the application to retry.


Read-only. This transaction type provides guaranteed consistency acrossseveral reads, but does not allow writes. By default, read-only transactionsexecute at a system-chosen timestamp that guarantees external consistency, butthey can also be configured to read at a timestamp in the past. Read-onlytransactions do not need to be committed and do not take locks. In addition,read-only transactions might wait for in-progress writes to complete beforeexecuting.


Partitioned DML. This transaction type executes a Data ManipulationLanguage (DML) statement as Partitioned DML.Partitioned DML is designed for bulk updates and deletes, particularlyperiodic cleanup and backfilling.


A read-write transaction in Spanner executes a set of reads and writesatomically at a single logical point in time. Furthermore, the timestamp atwhich read-write transactions execute matches wall clock time, and theserialization order matches the timestamp order.


Why use a read-write transaction? Read-write transactions provide the ACIDproperties of relational databases (In fact, Spanner read-writetransactions offer even stronger guarantees than traditional ACID; see theSemantics section below.).


The effect is that all reads and writes appear to have occurred at a singlepoint in time, both from the perspective of the transaction itself and from theperspective of other readers and writers to the Spanner database. Inother words, the reads and the writes end up occurring at the same timestamp(see an illustration of this in the Serializability and externalconsistency section below).


The guarantees for a read-write transaction that only reads are similar: allreads within that transaction return data from the same timestamp, even for rownon-existence. One difference is that if you read data, and later commit theread-write transaction without any writes, there is no guarantee that the datadid not change in the database after the read and before the commit. If you wantto know whether data has changed since you read it last, the best approach is toread it again (either in a read-write transaction, or using a strong read.)Also, for efficiency, if you know in advance that you'll only be reading and notwriting, you should use a read-only transactioninstead of a read-write transaction.


In addition to the Isolation property, Spanner provides Atomicity (ifany of the writes in the transaction commit, they all commit), Consistency (thedatabase remains in a consistent state after the transaction) and Durability(committed data stays committed.)


Because of these properties, as an application developer, you can focus on thecorrectness of each transaction on its own, without worrying about how toprotect its execution from other transactions that might execute at the sametime.


The Spanner client libraries provide an interface for executing a bodyof work in the context of a read-write transaction, with retries for transactionaborts. Here's a bit of context to explain this point: a Spannertransaction may have to be tried multiple times before it commits. For example,if two transactions attempt to work on data at the same time in a way that mightcause deadlock, Spanner aborts one of them so that the other transactioncan make progress. (More rarely, transient events within Spanner mayresult in some transactions aborting.) Since transactions are atomic, an abortedtransaction has no visible effect on the database. Therefore, transactionsshould be executed by retrying them until they succeed.


When you use a transaction in a Spanner client library, you define thebody of a transaction (i.e., the reads and writes to perform on one or moretables in a database) in the form of a function object. Under the hood, theSpanner client library runs the function repeatedly until thetransaction commits or a non-retryable error is encountered.


Your marketing department decides to do a marketing push for the album keyed byAlbums (1, 1) and has asked you to move $200,000 from the budget of Albums(2, 2), but only if the money is available in that album's budget. You shoulduse a locking read-write transaction for this operation, because the transactionmight do writes depending on the result of a read.


Spanner provides 'serializability', which means that all transactionsappear as if they executed in a serial order, even if some of the reads, writes,and other operations of distinct transactions actually occurred in parallel.Spanner assigns commit timestamps that reflect the order of committedtransactions to implement this property. In fact, Spanner offers astronger guarantee than serializability calledexternal consistency: transactions commit inan order that is reflected in their commit timestamps, and these committimestamps reflect real time so you can compare them to your watch. Reads in atransaction see everything that has been committed before the transactioncommits, and writes are seen by everything that starts after the transaction iscommitted.


Even though there is some overlap in time in which Txn1 and Txn2 are bothexecuting, their commit timestamps c1 and c2 respect a linear transactionorder, which means that all effects of the reads and writes of Txn1 appearto have occurred at a single point of time (c1), and all effects of thereads and writes of Txn2 appear to have occurred at a single point of time(c2). Furthermore, c1


Asynchronous read operations may be cancelled any time by the user (e.g., whena higher level operation is cancelled or you decide to stop a read basedon the initial results received from the read) without affecting any otherexisting operations within the transaction.


However, even if you have attempted to cancel the read, Spanner does notguarantee that the read is actually cancelled. After you request thecancellation of a read, that read can still successfully complete or fail withsome other reason (e.g. Abort). Furthermore, that cancelledread might actually return some results to you, and those possibly incompleteresults will be validated as part of the transaction Commit.


Spanner allows multiple clients to simultaneously interact with the samedatabase. In order to ensure the consistency of multiple concurrenttransactions, Spanner uses a combination of shared locks and exclusivelocks to control access to the data. When you perform a read as part of atransaction, Spanner acquires shared read locks, which allows otherreads to still access the data until your transaction is ready to commit. Whenyour transaction is committing and writes are being applied, the transactionattempts to upgrade to an exclusive lock. It blocks new shared read locks on thedata, waits for existing shared read locks to clear, then places an exclusivelock for exclusive access to the data.


Locks should not be used to ensure exclusive access to a resource outside ofSpanner. Transactions can be aborted for several reasons bySpanner such as, for example, when allowing data to move around theinstance's compute resources.If a transaction is retried, whether explicitly by application codeor implicitly by client code such as theSpanner JDBC driver, it is onlyguaranteed that the locks were held during the attempt that actually committed.


Spanner detects when multiple transactions might be deadlocked, andforces all but one of the transactions to abort. For example, consider thefollowing scenario: transaction Txn1 holds a lock on record A and is waitingfor a lock on record B, and Txn2 holds a lock on record B and is waitingfor a lock on record A. The only way to make progress in this situation is toabort one of the transactions so it releases its lock, allowing the othertransaction to proceed. 041b061a72


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