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Chemical Composition Of Ginger Pdf Download PATCHED



Zingiber officinale Rosc. is widely used as spice and medicinal plant in folk and traditional medicines. The aim of this study was to review the chemical composition and biological activities of Z. officinale (ginger) essential oil. Ginger oil is extracted from Z. officinale rhizomes, which its chemical composition influences from geographical region, extraction methods, freshness or dryness of rhizomes. The antibacterial, antifungal, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anti-ulcer, immunomodulatory, relaxant, and warming effects of ginger oil have been confirmed in experimental and preclinical studies. The safety issues of ginger oils are well documented and are generally regarded as safe. Due to wide pharmacological effects of ginger oil, attention to ginger oil as an ingredient of natural formulations in management of gastrointestinal and respiratory diseases is valuable.




Chemical Composition Of Ginger Pdf Download


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Zingiber officinale Rosc. (ginger), as the member of Zingiberaceae family is widely used as spice or medicinal plant in folk and traditional medicines. The medicinal part of ginger is rhizomes, which are used in traditional medicine for treatment of wide range of ailments. In Ayurveda system, ginger and milk or water in the form of paste are used externally for treatment of infantile colic. The combination of ginger with honey is used for asthmatic bronchitis, cough, hiccups, and respiratory colds. In traditional Chinese system, fresh ginger is believed to have mild warm temper, while dried and roasted ones are regarded as warm and hot, respectively [1]. It is used for digestive ailments, and appetite disorders [2]. Ginger is used for digestive problems in western medicine. Henry VIII recommended the use of ginger for preventing the plague. The prepared bread with ginger by Greeks is consumed after meal as digestive aid [3]. Blood purifying, aphrodisiac, sex stimulants, appetizing, anti-flatulent, anti-spasmodic, anti-hemorrhoid, anti-vomiting, and anti-nausea effects of ginger are other traditional prospects [4]. Ginger rhizomes are containing fatty oils (3-6%), proteins (9%), carbohydrates (60-70%), crude fiber (3-8%), ash (8%), water (9-12%), and volatile oil (2-3%). Nowadays, ginger hydro-ethanol extracts are extensively used as analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, anti-diabetic, hepato-protective, nephron-protective, and antioxidant agents [5], which has been the subject of many review articles [6,7,8]. The aim of this review article was to investigate the chemical composition of ginger essential oil and its pharmacological effects according to published literatures up to December 2017. The information was extracted from accessible international electronic databases (PubMed, Springer, Science Direct, Wiley and Google), and books (Persian or English), by key word of Zingiber officinalis essential oil or ginger.


Ginger oil's yield is varying from 1.0 to 3%, depending upon the source of rhizomes [9]. In addition to the essential oil's yields, the chemical compositions of ginger oils are affected from the source of rhizome, freshness or dryness and extraction methods. Due to importance of essential oil's yields and chemical compositions, these subjects were reviewed in this section (Table 1).


Furthermore, the drying method had been high effects on essential oil's yield and the chemical composition of ginger rhizomes. It has been confirmed that drying the rhizomes in temperature lower than 70 оC increased the yield of ginger oil, without any effect on transformation of 6-gingerol to 6-shogaol, while temperature higher than 70 оC promoted transformation of 6-gingerol to 6-shogaol [12]. The essential oil from mature freeze-dried ginger rhizome (Hsinchu, Taiwan), which extracted by hydro-distillation method and low temperature extraction using liquid CO2 method, resulted in degradation of non-volatile gingerol contents [13]. Furthermore, zingiberene (27.8%), β-phellandrene (12.9%), sesquiphellandrene (10.4%), geranial (6.6%), α-curcumene (5.8%), and β-bisabolene (5.7%) were as the main components of fresh ginger oil, while drying at 80 оC for 1 h was resulted in zingiberene (26.4%), sesquiphellandrene (10.2%), β-phellandrene (10.0%), camphene (7.6%), geranial (6.6%), ar-curcumene (6.0%), and β-bisabolene (5.4%) as its main components. Drying these rhizomes by microwave at 700 W for 2 min resulted in zingiberene (37.1%), β-sesquiphellandrene (12.8%), β-bisabolene (12.8%), ar-curcumene (8.5%), and β-phellandrene (7.4%) as the main compounds. Essential oil of silica gel dried rhizome had been zingiberene (30.2%), sesquiphellandrene (12.2%), geranial (8.1%), β-phellandrene (7.7%), ar-curcumene (6.3%), and β-bisabolene (6.2%) [12]. Drying the fresh ginger by convection drying, and microwave drying methods at PL 100 resulted in 2.9 and 3% v/w yield oil versus 3.2% for ginger oil from fresh rhizome. Zingiberene (23.5%), α-farnesene (12.0%), β-sesquiphellandrene (10.3%) and ar-curcumene (5.5%) were the main components of fresh ginger oil. The concentration of zingiberene decreased in essential oils from rhizome dried by convection drying or microwave PLS higher than 100. The extracted essential oil from dried ginger rhizome by microwave PL100 had higher gingerol content (about 7%) due to reduction in drying time [14]. Therefore, the drying method, freshness or dryness and time exposure of rhizome to heat [14] can influence on chemical composition and yield of essential oils. The number of phytochemical compounds in ginger oil from dried rhizomes had higher than the oils from fresh ones (115 vs. 63) [15].


According to ISO 16928:2014, the pale yellow to amber ginger oil from China should be containing α-zingiberene (29-40%), β-sesquiphellandrene (10-14%), ar-curcumene (5-11%), camphene (4.5-10%), and β-bisabolene (2.5-9%), while yellow ginger oil from India should be containing α-zingiberene (35-40%), β-sesquiphellandrene (11.5-13.5%), ar-curcumene (6.5-9%), camphene (5-8%), and β-bisabolene (2.5-5.5%). The pale yellow essential oil from West Africa had α-zingiberene (23-45%), β-sesquiphellandrene (8-17%), ar-curcumene (3-11%), camphene (0.2-12%), and β-bisabolene (3-7%). The essential oil from unpeeled rhizomes cultivars from North-East India (2.22-4.17% w/w) had camphene (8.49%), neral (4.95%), geranial (12.36%), zingiberene (20.98%) and β-sesquiphellandrene (7.96%) [20]. The chemical compositions of ginger oils are affected from geographical condition. Ginger oils, extracted by hydro-distillation method from three different geographical locations of India (Mizoram, Chennai and two varieties from Sikkim) had zingiberene (10.5-16.6%), ar-curcumene (2.9-9.8%), β-sesquiphellandrene (5.8-7.2%), e-citral (7.4-10.5%), z-citral (5.3-7%), o-cymene (0.9-6.5%), camphene (0.9-7.6%), and limonene (1.3-6.4%) [21]. Ginger rhizome essential oil from Vietnam was extracted by water or steam distillation method (yields 2.1% and 2.05%, respectively). ar-curcumene (11.7%) and β-bisabolene (4.1%) were the main components of essential oil, extracted by steam distillation, while ar-curcumene (12.6%), α-zingiberene (10.3%), β-bisabolene (8.1%) and β-sesquiphellandrene (7.4%) were present in essential oil extracted by steam distillation [22]. The ginger essential oil from Algeria had citral (30.8%), zingiberene (17.07%), β-bisabolene, geranyl acetate (6.7%), β-sesquiphellandrene (5.9%), 1,8-cineol (6.1%) and geraniol (6.1%) [23].


The other effective factor on chemical composition of oil is the method, which is used for extraction of ginger oil. The essential oil from Brazilian ginger rhizomes, which were extracted by hydro-distillation method and supercritical fluid extraction using CO2 had lower extraction's yield in hydro-distillation method than that of supercritical fluid extraction method. α-zingiberene, β-sesquiphellandrene, ar-curcumene, α-farnesene, β-bisabolene and geranial were the main components of ginger oil extracted by supercritical critical extraction using CO2 (at 25 MPa, temperature 333.15 K). ar-curcumene, geranial and camphene were the main components of hydro-distilled ginger essential oil. The content of α-zingiberene was lower in hydro-distilled ginger essential oil [24]. Furthermore, the highest yield for essential oil (3.1%) and 6-gingerol content (20.7%) were achieved by supercritical fluid extraction at 15 MPa, 35 оC and 15 g/min. The essential oil yield for scale up of this method was 3.83% with 18% of 6-gingerol. The essential oil's yield was 1.9% with 6-gingerol content of 14.8% for high pressure Soxhlet with CO2. Extraction of essential oils with other methods such as Soxhlet with n-hexane or ethanol percolation had disadvantages of residual solvent and low content of 6-gingerol (4.59-6.26%) [25]. Proteolytic enzyme (Zingibain), oleoresin, vitamins, minerals, gingerols, shogaols, paradols and zingerone were found in ginger essential oil [26] and has been confirmed that γ-irradiation of rhizome (60 Gy) had no detectable effects on qualitative and quantitative of components of extracted essential oil [16]. The citral content of ginger essential oil from dried rhizome was lower than the oil from fresh ginger. The unpeeled or coated rhizomes had the better yield of essential oil [27]. The structure of main components in ginger essential oil is presented in Fig. 1. Therefore, defining a protocol for gathering, drying and extraction method help to prepare a standard on chemical profile of ginger essential oil by international organizations in order to overcome the diversity of chemical composition of essential oil.


Although, the chemical compositions of ginger essential oil are affected from many factors, but different pharmacological and biological activities are reported for ginger essential oil in different literatures.


Brazilian ginger rhizomes essential oil with main components of α-zingiberene, β-sesquiphellandrene, ar-curcumene, α-farnesene, β-bisabolene and geranial had the higher inhibition zone diameters for Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes, followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Salmonella typhimurium, Shigella flexneri and Escherichia coli were resistant to ginger essential oil [24]. The higher sensitivity of S. aureus than that of E. coli to ginger essential oil were confirmed in other study [28]. Ginger essential oil exhibited the MIC values of 8.69, 86.92, 173.84 and 869.2 mg/ml for S. aureus, Bacillus subtilis, E. coli and Penicillium spp. [29]. The antibacterial evaluation of ginger essential oil against Gram negative bacteria; Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Acinetobacter baumannii ATCC 19606, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, and 30 multidrug-resistant (MDR) A. baumannii isolates showed the inhibition zone diameters of 11.5, 6, 6, 10 mm. The MIC50 and MIC90 values of ginger essential oil were 2 and 4 mg/ml against MDR-A. baumannii. The corresponding MBC were 4 mg/ml. Tea tree oil was used as positive control in this study with MIC and MBC values of 2 and 4 mg/ml, respectively [30]. The antifungal activity of Vietnamese ginger essential oil with ar-cucumene, β-bisabolene, α-zingiberene and β-sesquiphellandrene against Botrytis cinerea, Penicillium sp., Aspergillus niger, followed by Rhizopus nigricans, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Candida albicans, were confirmed. Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Salmonella abony, Escherichia coli, and Bacillus pumilus showed less sensitivity to Vietnamese ginger essential oil. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was resistant to ginger essential oil [22]. Ginger essential oil had less activity against Streptococcus pneumoniae R36A [31]. The ginger essential oil had antibacterial effects against Campylobacter jejuni, E. coli O157:H7, L. monocytogenes, and Salmonella enterica [32]. The ginger essential oil with citral (30.8%) and zingiberene (17.07 %), β-bisabolene, geranyl acetate (6.7%), β-sesquiphellandrene (5.9%), 1,8-cineol (6.1%) and geraniol (6.1%) showed antimicrobial activity against S. aureus ATCC 25923, Streptococcus pyogenes ATCC 19615, B. subtilis ATCC 6633, Salmonella typhi ATCC 23564, A. niger ATCC 9029, and P. aeruginosa ATCC 27853. E. coli ATCC 25922, Citrobacter koseri ATCC 27028 and Proteus mirabilis ATCC 29906 exhibited less sensitivity to ginger essential oil [23]. It seems that ginger essential oil showed the best antibacterial activity against Gram positive bacteria than that of Gram negative ones. Also, the results of antibacterial effects of ginger essential oil showed that this activities influence from the chemical composition of ginger essential oil. Furthermore, the antifungal activities of ginger essential oils had been the subjects of other research studies.


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